Peer-Reviewed Journals and Publications

  1. Fox F, Ford S, Douglas R, Cherian S, Nowell PC.Evidence that TGF-beta can inhibit human T-lymphocyte proliferation through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. Cell Immunol 150(1):45-58, Aug 1993.
  2. Douglas RS, Tarshis AD, Pletcher CH Jr, Nowell PC, Moore JS.A simplified method for the coordinate examination of apoptosis and surface phenotype of murine lymphocytes. J Immunol Methods 188(2):219-28, Dec 27, 1995.
  3. Douglas RS, Capocasale RJ, Lamb RJ, Nowell PC, Moore JS.Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells are resistant to the apoptotic effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Blood 89(3):941-7, Feb 1997.
  4. Douglas RS, Woo EY, Capocasale RJ, Tarshis AD, Nowell PC, Moore JS.Altered response to and production of TGF-beta by B cells from autoimmune NZB mice. Cell Immunol 179(2):126-37, Aug 1997.
  5. Douglas RS, Pletcher CH, Nowell PC, Moore JS. Novel approach for simultaneous evaluation of cell phenotype, apoptosis, and cell cycle using multiparameter flow cytometry. Cytometry 32(1):57-65, May 1998.
  6. Honczarenko M, Douglas RS, Mathias C, Lee B, Ratajczak M, Silberstein LE. SDF-1 responsiveness does not correlate with CXCR4 expression levels of developing human bone marrow B cells. Blood 94(9):2990-8, Nov 1, 1999.
  7. Zaki M, Douglas R, Patten N, Bachinsky M, Lamb R, Nowell P, Moore J.Disruption of the IFN-gamma cytokine network in chronic lymphocytic leukemia contributes to resistance of leukemic B cells to apoptosis. Leuk Research 24(7):611-21, Jul 2000.
  8. Majka M, Ratajcak J, Lee B, Honczarenko M, Douglas R, Kowalska MA, Silberstein L, Gewirtz AM, Ratajcak MZ. The role of HIV-related chemokine receptors and chemokines in human erythropoiesis in vitro.  Stem Cells 18(2):128-38, 2000.
  9. Prenner JL, Binenbaum G, Carpentieri DF, Goldstein SM, Douglas RS, Ruchelli E, Katowitz JA Hertle RW Treacher Collins syndrome with novel ophthalmic findings and visceral anomalies.  British J Ophthalmol 86(4):472-3, Apr 2002.
  10. Goldstein SM, Douglas RS. Epiphora: What to do when probing fails.  Rev Ophthal9 (8):96, Aug 2002.
  11. Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Katowitz JA, Gausas RE, Ibarra MS, Tsai D, Sharma A, Nichols C Orbital presentation of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: A small case series.  Ophthalmology 109(12):2351-5, Dec 2002.
  12. Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Einhorn E, Ibarra MS, Gausas RE. Metastatic breast cancer to 4 eyelids: clinicopathologic report.  Cutis 70(5):291-3, Nov 2002.
  13. Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Nichols C Acute myelogenous leukaemia presenting as a conjunctival lesion and red eye.  Acta Ophthalmol Scand 80(6):671-2, Dec 2002.
  14. Douglas RS, Gausas RE A systematic comprehensive approach to management of irreversible facial paralysis.  Facial Plastic Surg 19(1):107-12 Feb 2003.
  15. Brown KE, Goldstein SM, Douglas RS, Katowitz JA Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis: A neurocutaneous syndrome. J AAPOS 7(2):148-9, Apr 2003.
  16. Goldstein SM, Douglas RS, Binenbaum G, Katowitz JA Paediatric periocular granuloma annulare.  Acta Scandinavica 81(1):90-1, Feb 2003.
  17. Douglas RS, Duncan J, Brucker A, Prenner JL, Brucker AJ Foveal spot: A report of thirteen patients.  Retina 23(3):348-53, Jun 2003.
  18. Mauriello JA Jr, Franklin M, Carter S, Dresner S, Hartstein M, Herion MA, Gausas R, Douglas R, Goldberger S, Gonnering RS, Perez N, Khan J, White W, Faerber T, Kronish J, Wesley R. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the periocular region after periocular and facial surgery.  Ophthal Recon Surg 19(3):182-8, May 2003.
  19. Douglas RS, Goldstein SM, Gausas RE, Volpe NJ. Thyroid ophthalmopathy: Current concepts. Comprehensive Ophthalmology Update 4(3):139-46, 2003.
  20. Cook T, Goldberg RA, Douglas R, Eshaghian B, Shorr N, Fagien S The horizontal dynamic of the medial and lateral canthus.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 19(4):107-12, Jul 2003.
  21. Douglas RS, Cook T, Shorr N Lumps and Bumps: Late postsurgical inflammatory and infectious lesions.  Plast Reconstr Surg 112(7):1923-8, Dec 2003.
  22. Nakra T, Cook T, Douglas R, Goldberg RA Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans metastastic to the orbit.  Arch Ophthal 122(8):1240-1, Aug 2004.
  23. Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Shorr N. Adjunctive techniques for prevention of lower eyelid retraction.  Am J Cosmetic Surg 21:5-11, 2004.
  24. Cook T, Nakra T, Shorr N, Douglas RS Facial recontouring with autogenous fat.  Facial Plast Surg 20(2):145-7, May 2004.
  25. Ben Simon GJ, Syed HM, Douglas R, McCann JD, Goldberg RA Extraocular muscle enlargement with tendon involvement in thyroid-associated orbitopathy.  Am J Ophthalmol  137(6):1145-7, Jun 2004.
  26. Douglas RS, Donsoff I, Cook T, Shorr N Collagen fillers in facial aesthetic surgery. Facial Plasc Surg 20(2): 117-23, May 2004.
  27. Taban M, Douglas RS, Li T, Goldberg RA, Shorr N Efficacy of “thick” acellular human dermis (AlloDerm) for lower eyelid reconstruction: Comparison to hard palate and thin AlloDerm grafts. Arch Facial Plast Surg 7(1):38-44, Jan-Feb 2005.
  28. Ben Simon GJ, Schwarcz RM, Douglas R, Fiaschetti D, McCann JD, Goldberg RA Orbital exenteration: One size does not fit all.  Am J Ophthalmol 139(1):11-7, Jan 2005.
  29. Douglas RS, Bhatnagar A, Goldberg RA. New innovations in the surgical management of thyroid-related orbitopathy.  Techn in Ophthal.4(2):82-89, May2006.
  30. Chen B, Tsui S, Boeglin WE, Douglas RS, Brash AR, Smith TJ Interleukin-4 induces 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression in human orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves’ disease: Evidence for anatomic site–selective actions of Th2 cytokines. J Biol Chem 281(27):18296-306, Jul 7, 2006.
  31. Gianoukakis AG, Douglas RS, King CS, Cruikshank WW, Smith TJ. ImmunoglobulinG from patients with Graves’ disease induces interleukin-16 and RANTES expression in cultured human thyrocytes: A putative mechanism for T-cell infiltration of the thyroid in autoimmune disease.  Endocrinology 147(4):1941-9, Apr 2006.
  32. Nakra T, Simon GJ, Douglas RS, Schwarcz RM, McCann JD, Goldberg RA. Comparing outcomes of enucleation and evisceration.  Ophthalmology 113(12):2270-5, Dec 2006.
  33. Groth MJ, Bhatnagar A, Clearihue WJ, Goldberg RA, Douglas RS. Long term efficacy of  biomodeled polymethyl methacrylate implants for orbitofacial defects.  Arch Facial Plast Surg 8(6):381-9, Nov-Dec 2006.
  34. Ben Simon GJ, Syed HM, Douglas R, Schwartz R, Goldberg RA, McCann JD. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcome of optic neuropathy in thyroid-related orbitopathy.  Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 37(4):284-90, Jul-Aug 2006.
  35. Modjtahedi SP, Modjtahedi BS, Mansury AM, Selva D, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Leibovitch I. Pharmacological treatments for thyroid eye disease.  Drugs 66(13):1685-700, 2006.
  36. Douglas R Robotic surgery in ophthalmology: Reality or fantasy? Brit J Ophthalmol 91(1):1 Jan 2007.
  37. Bhatnagar A, Tsirbas A, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Hoyama E Graves’ orbitopathy.  Ophthalmology 114(2):392.e1-2, Feb 2007.
  38. Douglas RS, Gianoukakis AG, Kamat S, Smith TJ. Aberrant Expression of the IGF-1 receptor by T cells from patients with Graves’ disease may carry functional consequences for disease pathogenesis. J Immunol 178(5):3281-7, Mar 1, 2007.
  39. Douglas RS, Gianoukakis AG, Goldberg RA, Kamat S, Smith TJ Circulating mononuclear cells from euthyroid patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy exhibit characteristic phenotypes. Clin Exp Immunol 148(1):64-71, Apr 2007.
  40. Zoumalan CI, Cockerham KP, Turbin RE, Volpe NJ, Kazim M, Douglas RS, Feldon SE Efficacy of corticosteroids and external beam radiation in the management of moderate to severe thyroid eye disease. J Neuroophthalmol 27(3):205-14, Sep 2007.
  41. Goldberg RA, Lee S, Jayasundera T, Tsirbas A, Douglas RS, McCann JD Treatment of lower eyelid retraction by expansion of the lower eyelid with hyaluronic acid gel. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 23(5):343-8, Sep-Oct 2007.
  42. Naik V, Khadavi N, Naik MN, Hwang C, Goldberg RA, Tsirbas A, Smith TJ, Douglas RS Biologic therapeutics in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: Translating disease mechanism into therapy. Thyroid 18(9):967-71, Sep 2008.
  43. Smith TJ, Tsai CC, Shih MJ, Tsui S, Chen B, Han R, Naik V, King CS, Press C, Kamat S, Goldberg RA, Phipps RP, Douglas RS, Gianoukakis AG. Unique attributes of orbital fibroblasts and global alterations in IGF-1 receptor signaling could explain thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.  Thyroid 18(9):983-8, Sep 2008.
  44. Bhatnager A, Eckstein LA, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA Congenital lacrimal sac fistula: Intraoperative visualization by polyvinyl siloxane cast.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 24(2):158-60, Mar-Apr 2008.
  45. Goldberg RA, Samimi DB, Tsirbas A, Douglas RS. The hydrogel lacrimal stent for dacryocystorhinostomy: preliminary experience. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 24(2):85-90, Mar-Apr 2008.
  46. Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Smith TJ. A symposium on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, also known as Graves’ orbitopathy at the Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles.  Thyroid 18(9):931, Sep 2008.
  47. Tsui S, Naik V, Hoa N, Hwang CJ, Hikim AS, Gianoukakis AG, Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Evidence for an association between thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors: A tale of two antigens implicated in Graves’ disease. J Immunol 181(6):4397-405, Sep 15, 2008.
  48. Douglas RS, Naik V, Hwang CJ, Afifiyan NF, Gianoukakis AG, Sand D, Kamat S, Smith TJ. B cells from patients with Graves’ disease aberrantly express the IGF-1 receptor: Implications for disease pathogenesis. J Immunol 181(8):5768-74, Oct 15, 2008.
  49. Shadpour JM, Menghani RM, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Tsirbas A Reactivation of thyroid-associated orbitopathy after cataract surgery. Jpn J Ophthalmol 53(1):44-6, Jan 2009.
  50. Mancini R, Taban M, Lowinger A, Nakra T, Tsribas A, Douglas RS, Shorr N, Goldberg RA Use of hyaluronic acid gel in the management of paralytic lagophthalmos: The hyaluronic acid gel “gold weight”. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 25(1):23-6, Jan-Feb 2009.
  51. Hwang CJ, Douglas RS. Current Concepts: Medical Management of Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy. Current Insights Ophthal May, 2009.
  52. Hwang CJ, Afifiyan N, Sand D, Naik V, Said J, Pollock SJ, Chen B, Phipps RP, Goldberg RA, Smith TJ, Douglas RS Orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy overexpress CD40: CD154 hyperinduces IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50(5):2262-8, May 2009.
  53. Taban M, Nakra T, Mancini R, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA Orbital wall fracture repair using Seprafilm® Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 25(3):211-4, May-Jun 2009.
  54. Douglas RS, Brix TH, Hwang CJ, Hegedüs L, Smith TJ. Divergent frequencies of IGF-1 receptor-expressing blood lymphocytes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for Graves’ disease: Evidence for a phenotypic shift ascribable to non-genetic factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94(5):1797-802, May 2009.
  55. Taban M, Mancini R, Nakra T, Velez FG, Ela-Dalman N, Tsribas A, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA Nonsurgical management of congenital eyelid malpositions using hyaluronic acid gel. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 25(4):259-63, Jul-Aug 2009.
  56. Douglas RS, Tsirbas A, Gordon M, Lee D, Khadavi N, Garneau HC, Goldberg RA, Cahill K, Dolman PJ, Elner V, Feldon S, Lucarelli M, Uddin J, Kazim M, Smith TJ, Khanna D Development of criteria for evaluating clinical response in thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique.  Arch Ophthamol 127(9):1155-60, Sep 2009.
  57. Khadavi NM, Mancini R, Nakra T, Tsirbas AC, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Duckwiler GR Rare dural arteriovenous fistula of the lesser sphenoid wing sinus. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg  25(5):404-6, Sep-Oct 2009.
  58. Khanna D, Chong KK, Afifiyan NF, Hwang CJ, Lee DK, Garneau HC, Goldberg RA, Darwin CH, Smith TJ, Douglas RS Rituximab treatment of patients with severe, corticosteroid-resistant thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.  Ophthalmology 117(1):133-139.e2, Jan 2010
  59. Douglas RS, Afifiyan NF, Hwang CJ, Chong K, Haider U, Richards P, Gianoukakis AG, Smith TJ Increased generation of fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95(1):430-8, Jan 2010.
  60. Naik VM, Naik MN, Goldberg RA, Smith TJ, Douglas RS Immunopathogenesis of thyroid eye disease: Emerging paradigms. Surv Ophthalmol 55(3):215-26, May-Jun 2010.
  61. Lee S, Taban M, Mancini R, Chong K, Goldberg RA, Douglas RS. Endoscopic removal of nasoglabellar dermoid cysts.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg  26(2):136-9, Mar-Apr 2010.
  62. Taban M, Nakra T, Hwang C, Hoenig JA, Douglas RS, Shorr N, Goldberg RA. Aesthetic lateral canthoplasty.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 26(3):190-4, May-Jun 2010.
  63. Janez L, Taban M, Wong CA, Ranganath K, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Localized intraorbital Castleman’s disease:  A case report.  Orbit 29(3):158-60, Jun 2010.
  64. Douglas RS, Smith TJ Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology 117(9):1864-5, 2010.
  65. Raychaudhuri N, Douglas RS, Smith TJ PGE2 induces IL-6 in orbital fibroblasts through EP2 receptors and increased gene promoter activity: implications to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. PLoS One 5(12):e15296, Dec 2010.
  66. Hegedus L, Smith TJ, Douglas RS, Nielsen CH. Targeted biological therapies for Graves’ disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.  Focus on B-cell depletion with Rituximab.  Clin Endocrinol 74(1):1-8, Jan 2011.
  67. Bhatt R, Nelson CC, Douglas RS Thyroid-associated orbitopathy: Current insights into the pathophysiology, immunology and management.Saudi J Ophthal 25(1):15-20, Jan 2011.
  68. Chang HS, Lee D, Taban M, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA “En-Glove” Lysis of lower eyelid retractors with AlloDerm and dermis fat grafts in lower eyelid retraction surgery. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 27(2):137-41 Mar-Apr 2011.
  69. Douglas RS. Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy.  Ophthalmology 118(4):792-3, 2011.
  70. Douglas RS, Gupta S The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease: implications for immunotherapy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 22:385-90, Sep 2011.
  71. Smith, TJ, Douglas R Pharmacotherapy: Does selenium supplementation improve Graves ophthalmology? Nat Rev Endocrinol 7(9):505-6, Aug 2, 2011.
  72. Zhao SX, Tsui S, Cheung A, Douglas RS, Smith TJ, Banja JP Orbital fibrosis in a mouse model of Graves’ disease induced by genetic immunization of thyrotropin receptor cDNA.  J Endocrinol  210(3):369-77, Sep 2011.
  73. Lee BJ, Elner SG, Douglas, RS, Elner VM. Island pedicle and horizontal advancement cheek flaps for medial canthal reconstruction. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 27(5):376-9, Sep-Oct 2011.
  74. Smith TJ, Padovani-Claudio DA, Lu Y, Raychaudhuri N, Fernando R, Atkins S, Gillespie EF, Gianoukakis AG, Miller BS, Gauger PG, Doherty GM, Douglas RS Fibroblasts expressing the thyrotropin receptor overarch thyroid and orbit in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96(12):3827-37, Dec 2011.
  75. Briceno C, Douglas ROrbital and periorbital infections. Arch Opthalmol130(2):233-4, Feb 2012.
  76. Dolman PJ, Cahill K, Czyz CN, Douglas RS, Elner VM, Feldon S, Kazim M, Lucarelli M, Sivak-Collcott J, Stacey AW, Strianese D, Uddin J Reliability of estimating ductions in thyroid eye disease: an International Thyroid Eye Disease Society multicenter study. Ophthalmology 119(2):382-9, Feb 2012.
  77. Papageorgiou KI, Mancini R, Garneau HC, Chang SH, Jarullazada I, King A, Forster-Perlini E, Hwang C, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA A three-dimensional construct of the aging eyebrow: the illusion of volume loss. Aesthet Surg J 32(1):46-57, Jan 2012
  78. Hwang CJ, Khadavi NM, Papageorgiou K, Said J, Chong K, Lee D, Smith TJ, Goldberg RA, Douglas RS Histopathology of brow fat in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 28(1):27-9, Jan-Feb 2012.
  79. Gillespie EF, Papageorgiou KI, Fernando R, Raychaudhuri N, Cockerham KP, Charara LK, Goncalves AC, Zhao SX, Ginter A, Lu Y, Smith TJ, Douglas RS Increased expression of TSH receptor by fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy leads to chemokine production. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97(5):E740-6, May 2012.
  80. Fernando R, Atkins S, Raychaudhuri N, Lu Y, Li B, Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Human fibrocytes coexpress thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(19):7427-32, May 8, 2012.
  81. Gillespie EF, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Thyroid eye disease: towards an evidence base for treatment in the 21st century. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 12(3):318-24, Jun 2012.
  82. Lee S, Douglas RS.Systemic MALToma with presumed choroidal involvement. Archives of Ophthalmology.130(3):379, Mar 2012.
  83. Papageorgiou KI, Hwang CJ, Chang SH, Jarullazada I, Garneau HC, Ang MJ, King AJ, Mancini R, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA. Thyroid-associated periorbitopathy: eyebrow fat and soft tissue expansion in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Archives of Ophthalmology 130(3):319-28, Mar 2012.
  84. Hoa N, Tsui S, Afifiyan NF, Sinha Hikim A, Li B, Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Nuclear targeting of IGF-1 receptor in orbital fibroblasts from Graves’ disease: apparent role of ADAM17. PLoS One7(4):e34173, Epub Apr 10, 2012.
  85. Smith TJ, Hegedüs L, Douglas RS. Role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway in the pathogenesis of Graves’ orbitopathy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 26(3):291-302, 2012.
  86. Gillespie EF, Raychaudhuri N, Papageorgiou KI, Atkins SJ, Lu Y, Charara LK, Mester T, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in CD40-engaged fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: Involvement of Akt and NF-kappaB. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(12):7746-53, 2012.
  87. Gupta S, Briceno C, Douglas RS. Customized minimally invasive orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease. Expert Rev Ophthalmol 8(3):255-266, Jun 2013.
  88. Briceño CA, Gupta S, Douglas RS Advances in the management of thyroid eye disease.  Int Ophthalmol Clin 53(3):93-101, 2013.
  89. McCoy AN, Kim DS, Gillespie E, Atkins S, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Rituximab (Rituxan®) therapy for severe thyroid associated ophthalmopathy diminishes IGF-1R+ T cells. J Clin Endocrinol MetabEpub Mar 26, 2014.
  90. Shan SJ, Douglas RS. The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease. J Neuroophthalmol 34(2):177-185, Jun 2014.
  91. Rajaii F, Gupta S, Douglas RS. Endocrinologic management of hyperthyroidism and the impact upon thyroid eye disease. Taiwan J Ophthalmol 4(2):69-72, Jun 2014.
  92. Douglas RS, Mester T, Ginter A, Kim DS. Thyrotropin receptor and CD40 mediate interleukin-8 expression in fibrocytes: implications for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).  Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc112:26-37, Jul 2014.
  93. Lee BJ, Atkins S, Ginter A, Elner VM, Nelson CC, Douglas RS. Increased CD40+ Fibrocytes in Patients With Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg, Epub Aug 5, 2014.
  94. Chen H, Mester T, Raychaudhuri N, Kauh CY, Gupta S, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R blocking monoclonal antibody inhibits TSH and IGF-1 action in fibrocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(9):E1635–E1640, September 2014.
  95. Stein JD, Childers D, Gupta S, Talwar N, Nan B, Lee BJ, Smith TJ, Douglas R. Risk Factors for Developing Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy Among Individuals With Graves’ Disease. JAMA Ophthalmol Epub Dec 11 2014.
  96. Kauh CY, Gupta S, Douglas RS, Elner VM, Nelson CC, Niziol LM, Kahana A. Compressive Optic Neuropathy and Repeat Orbital Decompression: A Case Series.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015: 31(5):385-90.
  97. Rootman DB, Kim MJ, Aldave AJ, Douglas R, Hwang C, Goldberg R. Ocular surface, fornix, and eyelid rehabilitation in Boston type I keratoprosthesis patients with mucous membrane disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 31(1):43-9, Jan-Feb 2015.
  98. Briceño CA, Gupta S, Douglas RS. Advances in the management of thyroid eye disease.Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2013 Summer;53(3):93-101.
  99. Stein JD, Childers D, Gupta S, Talwar N, Nan B, Lee BJ, Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Risk factors for developing thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy among individuals with Graves’ disease.  JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 133(3): 290-6.
  100. Chen, H, Shan SJ, Mester T, Douglas RS. TSH-Mediated TNF-α Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R antagonist. PLoS One. 10(6): e0130322.
  101. Al-Holou SN, Elner VM, Douglas RS, Joseph SS. Eyelid swelling and proptosis with systemic implications. AM J Med. 2016. 129:e51-e53
  102. Joseph SS, Joseph AW,Douglas RS,Massry GG.Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 49:475-87.
  103. Lee BJ, Atkins S, Ginter A, Elner VM, Nelson CC, Douglas RS. Increased CD40+ Fibrocytes in Patients With Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 31:202-6.
  104. Goncalves AC, Gupta S, Monteiro ML, Douglas RS. Customized minimally invasive orbital decompression surgery improves lower eyelid retraction and contour in thyroid eye disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 [Epub ahead of print].
  105. Eftekhari K, Peng GL, Landsberger H, Douglas R, Massry GG. The Brow fat pad suspension suture: safety profile and clinical observations. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 [Epub ahead of print].
  106. Smith TJ, Kahaly GJ, Ezra DG, Fleming JC, Dailey RA, Tang RA, Harris GJ, Antonelli A, Salvi M, Goldberg RA, Gigantelli JW, Couch SM, Shriver EM, Hayek BR, Hink EM, Woodward RM, Gabriel K, Magni G, Douglas RS. Teprotumumab for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 2017 May;376(18):1748-1761.
  107. Stewart KJ, Joseph SS, Douglas RS. An aesthetic orbicularis oculi myectomy technique for blepharospasm: use of topical 5-fluorouracil and fibrin sealant. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017 [Epub ahead of print].


  1. Douglas RS, McCoy A, Gupta S.Thyroid Eye Disease. Springer, 2015.

Book Chapters

  1. Cook T, Douglas RS, Goldberg RA, Shorr N. Fat Repositioning in Transconjunctival Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty.  In Techniques of Cosmetic Eyelid Surgery: A Case Study Approach.  Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 148-152, 2004.
  2. Douglas RS, Cook T, Donsoff I, Shorr N. Injectable Fillers in Facial Aesthetic Surgery.  In Techniques of Cosmetic Eyelid Surgery: A Case Study Approach.  Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 256-267, 2004.
  3. Douglas RS, Smith TJ. Thyroid Related Orbitopathy: New Immunologic Concepts and Future Implications.  In Essentials in Ophthalmology – Oculoplastics and Orbit.  Guthoff R. and Katowitz J., Eds.  Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 123-141, 2007.
  4. Smith TJ, Douglas RS. Pathophysiology of Graves’ Orbitopathy.  In Albert and Jakobiec’s Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, 3rd edition.  Albert, J. Miller, D. Azar and B. Blodi, Eds.  Saunders-Elsevier, Philadelphia pp. 2913-2926, 2008.
  5. Douglas RS, Gupta S, Smith TJ. Pathogenesis and Medical Management of Thyroid Eye Disease. In Smith and Nesi’s Ophthalmic Plastics& Reconstructive Surgery.  Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, pp. 1213-1223, 2012.
  6. Douglas RS, Goldberg R, Hwang CJ. Evaluation and Spectrum of Orbital Diseases. In Surgery of the Eyelids, Lacrimal System, and Orbit. M. Yen, Ed. Oxford University Press, pp. 227-245, 2012.
  7. Joseph S, Douglas RS. Thyroid Eye Disease: A Comprehensive Review. In Orbital Inflammatory Diseases and their Differential Diagnosis. H.Demirci. Springer, pp. 73-89, 2014.
  8. Douglas R, Bahn R. Commentary on Animal Models of Ocular Tumors (Ch 9). In Animal Models of Ophthalmic Diseases, Essentials in Ophthalmology. C. Chen. People’s Medical Publishing Horse Co., Ltd. 2015.

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